Other LCA Tools

LCA is awesome! And if using eTool LCA software doesn’t leave you with that feeling then don’t point the finger at LCA, find some software that suits your needs better. Here’s a list of other tools to explore.

TOOL
PROVIDER
Region
BEATDanish Building Research InstituteEurope (Denmark)
e-LICCOe-LICCOEurope (France)
eTooleToolGlobal (From Australia)
GaBiPE InternationalGlobal (From Europe)
GreenflyRMIT University
Sustainability Fund (Victoria)
Design Institute of Australia
Global (From Australia)
IMPACTIESGlobal (From UK)
Impact EstimatorThe Athena Sustainable Materials InstituteNorth America
KlimagassregnskapStatsbygg (Norway)Europe (Norway)
LCA CalculatorIDCGlobal (From UK)
SimaProPRE SustainabilityGlobal (From Europe)
Sustainable MindsSustainable MindsGlobal (From US)
TallyKieranTimberlakeNorth America
EN 15978 and eTool LCA Normal System Boundary

EN 15978

In 2011 the European Committee for Standardisation (CEN) released a new standard for measuring the environmental sustainability of buildings.  We grabbed a copy of this standard, EN 15978 soon after it was published to understand how eTool stacked up against the requirements.  We breathed a sigh of relief, although we had a few things to tidy up, what we were happy with was that we actually needed to reduce the scope and system boundary of a normal eToolLCA to report to EN15978.

Background to EN15978

This standard was one of the first to be released by CEN Technical Committee 350.  It was part of a much broader project to fully define how to measure the sustainability of buildings.  Within TC 350 there were working groups determining how to measure a building’s:

  • Environmental Performance,
  • Social Performance, and
  • Economic Performance.

Impressive.  The full suite of sustainability covered under one set group of standards.  And it doesn’t stop there, there are also working groups covering civil works and construction products.  Incredibly, they are making very good headway through this arduous scope with 8 standards already published and another four under development.  EN15978 is the key to measuring the environmental pillar of sustainability.

How Does it Work?

Well, it’s kind of complex you have to read the detail of the standard, and a good number of the standards referenced.  That said, we will summarise as best we can.  The basic philosophy is to rely 100% on LCA as the method of measuring environmental performance.  So there is hence a heavy reliance on ISO 14040, 14044 and 14025 which eTool LCA software also heavily draws on.  The standard gives guidance on how to apply LCA to buildings.  It effectively defines the goal, scope and method for LCA practitioners working on buildings.

The System Boundary

The diagram below shows the system boundary of EN 15978 is shown below.  For existing users of eTool LCA, or those who rely on eTool ratings, our standard system boundary is also shown.  We think the EN 15978 have essentially done a fantastic job putting this together (with a few exceptions we discuss below).

EN 15978 and eTool LCA Normal System Boundary

EN 15978 and eTool LCA Normal System Boundary

The largest omission from the system boundary is what EN15978 calls “non building related energy use”.  They essentially include HVAC, domestic hot water and lighting but exclude all other energy used within the building.  This makes sense at first glance, after all, these areas are certainly the most heavily influenced by the building designers, and other energy use is very heavily occupant driven.  There are however some strong arguments for including all energy used within the building, a few of which are listed below:

  • A building designer can influence occupant behaviour, and as such these aspects should be considered by architects and engineers, for example:
    • Energy monitoring has been proven to influence occupant behaviour in both commercial and residential buildings and should be considered by the design team
    • In residential buildings, energy use per occupant generally drops off with higher occupants per dwellings due to the base loads (refrigeration, living area entertainment, standby loads, lighting and heat losses from hot water systems) being spread between more occupants.  Buildings that allow and encourage more occupants per dwelling will (all else being equal) use less energy per occupant, and hence should be differentiated.
    • In commercial buildings, an integrated fit out of work stations can have huge positive impacts on energy use through the use of central servers for data storage and processing and mini computers at work stations drawing very little power.  A seamless implementation of such systems may require architectural and engineering consideration during the design of the building so should be factored.
  • Building integrated renewable energy systems should if possible be sized to meet the entire load of the building, not just the base building loads, so designers should be aware of the entire loads.
  • Developers can have a large influence on the building performance (at least initially) through the final fit out of appliances (residential) and work stations (commercial) so this should be within scope so we don’t drop the ball on this opportunity.
  • Vertical transport (elevators, escalators etc) for medium rise buildings can be heavily influenced by design:
    • The building envelope needs to cater for the most efficient plant geometrically
    • The use of stairs or ramps should be encouraged through design to reduce reliance on plant
    • The building electrical systems should be designed to cater for regenerative drives etc
  • Communicating the total impact of buildings without accounting for occupant energy use is very misleading.  Imagine moving into a building marketed as ‘energy neutral’ building only to find your power bill only drops 25%

Environmental Indicators

The suggested list of reported indicators is quite comprehensive for EN15978 and is shown in the below summary table:

 EN15978 Indicators

EN15978 does state that not all indicators need to be reported, but the documentation must specify the reasons for omission.  Interestingly toxicity, land use, biodiversity are missing from the above list.  The standard states that this is due to there being no scientifically agreed calculation method within the context of LCA for these indicators.  We’ll watch this space as we know some of these missing indicators are of great interest to many users of eTool.

EN 15978 and eTool LCA

After we read EN15978, we documented the required changes, pushed them into our product roadmap we got back to other work.  It wasn’t for another year though before it hit us how important this standard was.  All of a sudden, we weren’t “those guys from Western Australia who think they’ve nutted out how to truly improve the environmental performance of buildings”, EN15978 established that LCA was indeed the most appropriate tool for profiling green buildings.  Standards such as this one lend huge credibility to solutions like eTool that were released prior to the standard.  We were definitely barking up the right tree when we naively stood in front of the cameras on the ABC’s New Inventors and demonstrated the humble beginnings of eTool!

The recent uptake of LCA by the Green Building Council of Australia in their Greenstar tool heavily references  EN15978.  This has prompted us to build a suite of reports that are compliant with the standard, and those it references.  Importantly, we’re not going to remove any functionality form eTool, or contract the scope or system boundary.  Users will simply have the opportunity to report to either the EN15978 scope or the more expansive eTool LCA scope.  Similarly we’ll continue to upload more indicators into eTool LCA, our focus for the next 12 months will be plugging the gaps for EN15978 reporting.  There’s likely to be a lot of low hanging fruit here, and some trickier ones that may take some additional programming so we’re not entirely sure when we’ll be reporting on all 22 indicators just yet.  Our reports will be compliant with EN15978 though by still listing these additional indicators with “INA” (Indicator Not Assessed) in place of the calculated values which is accepted in the standard.  We’ll also allow users to report indicators currently available in eTool that aren’t required by EN15978.  Our general position on indicators is that global warming is our biggest environmental problem and hence our main efforts will continue to focus on solving this.

LCA_Alex home_basic design

eTool and Internet Explorer

We’re pushing the envelope a little with what’s possible for web based software and Microsoft Internet Explorer has been a pretty challenging for us, it seems that we fix it up to work in one version, and those fixes break something in another version.  Needless to say, if you’re happy using safari, chrome, firefox or basically any other browser by MS Internet Explorer you shouldn’t have any issues.  If you’re stuck with MS IE, or love using it, here’s the work around for using the eTool app…

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Software Updates

eTool is always busy in the background updating the libraries available to users.  Lately we’ve ramped up the activities in a big with with some major updates to our libraries.  Even more exciting is that we’re improving the functionality of eTool with some big software development projects.  I thought I’d take some time to update you.

Library Updates

Earlier in the year we conducted a large LCA study on a cutting edge development in the UK, One Brighton.  The study was commissioned by Bio Regional who run the One Planet Living sustainable living framework.  We will be publishing the results of this study before the end of the year.  During the modelling we adapted a pretty cool approach to modelling the UK Benchmarks where we morphed a number of different density buildings, based on the new build mix, to create a weighted average density and size building.  Our previous approach to this was to pick the most popular density building and adjust it’s size and other characteristics appropriately.  We liked the new approach so have also applied that to Australia.  This was timely as the density mix in Australia is also changing pretty dramatically as we embrace higher density living, particularly in Sydney and Melbourne (Sydney is now building more apartments and semi-detached dwellings than detached).  The new residential benchmarks are loaded up into the eTool Library read to compare your project against.  We’re also working on some office building benchmarks also, and looking into community buildings.  Watch this space!

Out templates library is also undergoing a bit of an overhaul.  There’s more to come but essentially we’ve be consolidating the current templates library and adding new templates where needed.  This will be an eternally evolving project and we have some really cool ideas about how users can share templates that we’re mocking up at the moment with implementation in mind.

Our materials, transport, equipment and energy databases are about to get an overhaul to.  You may have heard the GBCA has introduced credits for LCA.  Some of the indicators they’ve chosen weren’t being tracked by eTool so we’re in the process of updating this data.  Some interim updates have been performed including updating electricity grid coefficients to match the latest NGERs figures in Australia, and updates to some water grid figures (notably Perth to account for the increasing reliance on desalination).

Software Updates

Some big projects are now underway to take the eTool software to the next level.  See our product road map to get an understanding of the long term goals.  The focus is on aligning eTool with relevant international standards (in particular EN15978).  In the process we’re also fixing bugs along the way and generally improving the user experience.  Recent or impending improvements are listed below.

Functionality

Improved speed for the app.  You may have noticed that working on large designs the app started to labour a bit, or a lot if you were working on really big designs.  We’ve cut the save / clone time down by 75% which although is a good start is just the tip of the iceberg, we’re aiming to get a 95% improvement in performance in speed through a project that is revolutionising the back end of eTool.  I won’t go into the details, I’ll just say it’s a big project but is going to pay big dividends to users.

We’ve also changed the UI a little. Projects will soon be listed more conveniently (most recent on the top of the list when you log in).  There’s a big expansion in functionality for documenting project recommendations and our reports are about to get some serious attention also.

Bug Fixes

A few pesky bugs have also been fixed:

  • All design details now clone properly
  • Custom template details now clone properly
  • Reports on a design can be seen by all users accessing that design
  • Updates to certificate calculations to include PV generation and limit overall rating when gold savings aren’t achieved in both embodied and operational categories

 

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eTool LCA Expressions

eTool LCA V2 introduced some pretty neat functionality that allows users to enter “expressions” into some fields in a similar way formulas are used in a spreadsheet. This is particularly useful for building operational energy templates, for example, based on building size or occupancy. We have used a third party calculation library to enable this functionality, the list of available operators and functions is available here.

This functionality has dramatically improved the ease at which we can predict operational energy in designs and we’re enjoying using it here at eTool. We will be adding more stored variables as time passes, watch this space. To learn how to utilise this functionality, please get in touch for some training.

We also have a number of variables that relate to the design and can be used in expressions. The list of these is provided below. The default values that are used in library template calculations before loading into a design, or when a variable is left blank. The full list of variables is here:

 

Name

Unit Expression Code Description

Default Value 

Project Occupancy # P_O Occupancy of the entire project 10
Average water Inlet Temperature Degrees C IWT Average Water Inlet Temperature 15
Annual Horizontal Infrared Radiation Wh/m2 Sol_H Annual Horizontal Infrared Radiation 6500
Direct Solar Radiation Wh/m2 Sol_H Direct Solar Radiation 7000
Building Life Expectancy years BLE Building life expectancy accounting for redevelopment pressure 50
Durability Life Expectancy years DLE Durability life expectancy which does not account for redevelopment pressure 100
Expected Occupants years E_O Expected occupancy of the building 10
Fully Enclosed Building Area m2 FEBA Fully enclosed building area 200
Conditioned Area m2 CA Internal area conditioned by mechanical HVAC plant 180
Land Area m2 LA Land associated with the building project (footprint of building, parking and landscaping) 500
Dwellings # Func1 Number of dwellings (or tenancies) in the building 1
Stories # Func2 Number of stories (or levels) in the building 1
Work Stations / Bedrooms # Func3 Number of workspaces and/or bedrooms in the building 2
Heating Load MJ/m2/Annum HL Heating load required of mechanical HVAC plant to control building temperature 100
Cooling Load MJ/m2/Annum CL Cooling load required of mechanical HVAC plant to control building temperature 100
Default Indoor Illumination Requirement Lx DII Default illumination intensity required in the building 200
Average Daytime Occupancy hrs/day DTO Average daytime occupancy hours for the building 8
Average Nighttime Occupancy hrs/day NTO Average nighttime occupancy hours for the building 8
Average Ambient Temperature Whilst Heating Degrees C AHT Average ambient temperature whilst heating weighted for heating times and loads 5
Average Ambient Temperature Whilst Cooling Degrees C ACT Average ambient temperature whilst cooling weighted for heating times and loads 35
Indoor thermostat set point (winter) Degrees C IHT Indoor thermostat set point during winter 20
Indoor thermostat set point (Summer) Degrees C ICT Indoor thermostat set point during summer 24
Energy Monitoring Adjustment Factor % EMAF Energy monitoring adjustment factor for consumption rates 100%

 

eTool Residential Benchmark For Australia

Before getting into the nitty gritty, it’s important to understand the purpose of the eTool benchmarks, which is:

  • Establish a common measuring stick against which all projects are assessed so that any report is comparable to another (for the same type of project).
  • Create a starting point, or “average, business as usual case” from which to measure improvements.

The benchmarks are not an average of existing stock but rather an average of new stock. Hence any efficiency requirements etc in the Building Codes etc are taken into account. When comparing to the benchmark, the target is pretty simple. Effectively Australia has to drop it’s GHG emissions by about 90-95% on a per capita basis for us to become sustainable global citizens. With this in mind, what we should be trying to do is drop our building’s emissions by 95% against the benchmark to ensure the building is stabilising the climate.

Creating the business as usual benchmark is pretty complex. For residential buildings in Australia there is a broad density mix from detached through to apartments. This is the latest breakdown of the new dwellings density mix in Australia (from ABS) over the last two years:

DetachedSemi DetachedLow Rise ApartmentsHigh Rise Apartments
Proportion of New Dwellings61%13%7%19%

For each of these density types, eTool have formulated a BCA code compliant building. We have then created a nominal statistical mix of  floor areas to match the average new dwelling size in Australia (214m2). In this way we come up with a “dwelling” that is a mix of densities and matches the size of the average Australian dwelling.

A similar approach is taken for operational energy. In this case we first research the most up to date residential energy estimates for Australia.  This data comes from ABARE Energy in Australia 2012. It gives us guidance on the total energy used per household (existing housing stock) in Australia and also the fuel mix split (electricity, gas, wood etc). We then use other end use percentage estimates to determine where this energy is being used in the dwellings.  The most commonly quoted breakdown of household energy use in Australia is from the “Your Home Technical Manual” which is actually a reference to the “Energy Use in the Australian Residential Sector, 2008″.  This report is commonly referred to as the “Base line report”.  This report itself actually states:

The study identified a paucity of end-use data for residential energy use in Australia, particularly in regional areas. Some of the appliance energy consumption estimates used in this study rely on research that is 15 years old or, alternatively, on work undertaken in New Zealand. 

The study recommends an comprehensive end use energy monitoring program which we believe is being undertaken. Until the results are out we’re a feeling our way in the dark a little.  Not withstanding this, the study is useful to guide the decisions about where we’re using our energy. To verify the Base Line Report figures we also took some state government studies (eg Sustainable Energy Development Office in WA) and statistics from other countries (notably the BRANZ HEET study and also stats from the US). The largest unexplained discrepancy seems to be in the estimates for heating demand.

The Base Line Report suggests that 38% of total end use energy in Australia homes is dedicated to heating and cooling purposes.  This seems very high given the following facts:

  • The comprehensive HEET study from BRANZ in New Zealand (a much colder climate, and one dominated by heating requirements) only calculated 34% of end use energy dedicated to thermal performance.
  • The WA SEDO estimate for thermal comfort energy demand is also much less, hence it’s hard to believe the additional demand is due to cooling.
  • A large percentage of Australia’s population (Perth, Sydney and Brisbane) all live in quite mild or warm climates where heating would not make up more than 50% of the thermal control energy demand (and less still of the actual end use energy demand)
  • Heating is the most end use energy intensive thermal comfort mode as cooling typically utilises either apparent cooling methods (evaporative or fans) or heat pumps, both of which have effective Coefficient’s of Performance of 2.5 or more. This means for every one unit of energy input, 2.5 units (or more) of heat is dissipated of pumped from the dwelling when cooling. Heating on the other hand requires more energy than the actual heat load demand theoretically required to heat a space (or at least the same amount). This is mainly due to flue losses.

The high estimate in the Base Line Report may be linked back to the ABARE Energy stats which are also questionable. The Energy in Australia 2012 document from ABARE gives a biomass figure for residential energy use that equates to 6280MJ / household /annum.  When this is calculated in terms of mass of wood, it works out at 400kg of timber per household in Australia.  Even if one in every 5 houses (studies suggest it’s more like one in every 10) is using a wood heater that was their primary source of heat, that’s 2t of wood per annum they would need to be burning in order for the ABARE data to reconcile. To give you an idea, an average small box trailer full of wood is about 250kg. We’re not convinced there’s 2 million households in Australia receiving 8 trailers of wood per annum to heat their homes. The BRANZ HEET study further supports the proposition that ABARE have overestimated biomass consumption in the Australian residential sector.  BRANZ calculated that each wood heater uses 4,500kWh (one tonne) of wood per annum.

Without making any adjustments to either the end use demand figures, or the top down supply figures the numbers don’t reconcile very well. For example, trying to “fit” the biomass, gas and LPG energy into the end use break down “squeezes” electricity out of the hot water and space heating categories. There simply isn’t enough low grade heat requirements in dwellings to account for all the biomass. However, when we aligned the biomass use predictions with BRANZ, and adjusted the demand figures to better match some of the competing studies we got good reconciliation.

This also supports the total residential demand estimate in the Base Line Report which is quite a bit lower than the ABARE stats.

Once we knew the amount of energy the existing housing stock were using, we then determine how this would differ in new dwellings.  Some energy use would remain pretty static (eg appliance use and refrigeration). Lighting, hot water and heating and cooling have relatively new BCA code requirements focussed on energy efficiency. For these end categories appropriate adjustments were made to account for the newer technologies and associated demand.

Heating and Cooling (Thermal Control)

The heating and cooling energy requirements are the most complex, as there are very few stats on what equipment is being deployed in new houses. The NatHERS system does help this situation and we make an estimate of the deployment of heating and cooling technologies in the current housing stock as follows:

  1. Estimate the heating verse cooling loads for buildings in the top 20 populous NatHERs climate zones (85% of Australia’s population). This works out to be 60% heating and 40% cooling.  
  2. Estimate the efficiency of each type of heating and cooling technology
  3. Estimate the deployment of each type of heating and cooling technology
  4. Adjust estimates such that total energy consumption matches our adjusted ABARE figures and the split in thermal demand matches the NatHERs weighted average for Australia

This then informs our decisions about what people are likely to choose for new houses.  The summary is found in the following tables:

Electric Heat PumpElectric Fans or Evaporative Coolers
Existing Stock Cooling Demand50%50%
New Housing Stock Cooling Demand60%40%

Electric Heat PumpElectric RadiatorsGas FluedGas Internal HeaterWood Heaters
Existing Stock Heating Demand20%10%17%51%2%
New Housing Stock Heating Demand35%0%20%40%5%

For each major BCA climate zone or population centre then simply divide the NatHERs energy demand estimates for a 6 star dwelling for the building between these categories and apply appropriate efficiency or COP figures to determine what the end use energy demand will be.

Hot Water

The building codes have now banned the use of electric resistance storage hot water systems in all residential buildings apart from class 2 building (strata buildings). Some state governments also discourage the use of electric heaters in class 2 buildings. This has led to a huge shift from electric storage hot water heaters to gas, solar, and heat pump units. This is a great thing for reducing the carbon intensity of the delivered hot water to dwellings (see more explanation on hot water fuel types here).

Using the same reconciling procedure between the end use energy estimates and the adjusted ABARE data we get the following mix of fuel uses for meeting demand in Australian existing housing stock:

Fuel Contribution to Water Heating Demand of Existing StockFuel Contribution to Assumed Water Heating Demand of New Stock
Natural Gas and LPG77%79%
Electric15%13%
Solar8%8%

Note, this doesn’t imply that 69% of water heaters are gas fired, it implies that 69% of energy used by water heaters is gas. The difference is that gas water heaters have lower efficiencies than electric resistance heaters (99%) or heat pumps (approximately 270%). Depending on the age of the heater, it may be as low as 50%, and won’t get much better than 85%. So the mix of heaters installed is actually more slanted towards electric.

New buildings will tend more towards gas due to the current BCA requirements. With this in mind, we’ve used the figures in the right hand column for the split in fuel use for new dwellings.

eTool LCA Software News

eTool LCA has been getting a bit of attention lately, and there’s some changes in the wind so we thought we would update everyone. An update on updates! Most of the recent changes have been updates to our libraries which are now getting pretty extensive.

New Electricity Grids

We’ve added a number of new electricity grids to our library to extend the reach of eTool LCA. The data was gained from public information which varied in quality, however where there was a discrepancy between reported direct emissions CO2 intensity, the fuel mix was updated to ensure consistency. Transmission and distribution losses are also accounted for for each individual grid, and upstream emissions associated with provision of fuels to power plants etc.

  • Ten new US grids including: Alaska, Florida, Hawai, Midwest RO, Mid East States, Northeast PCC, South East States, South West PP, Texas and Western ECC.  
  • Thirteen new European grids including: UK, Germany, France, Italy, Spain, Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Poland, Netherlands, Belgium, Czech Republic, Austria, Romania

At present in eTool software for life cycle cost calculations the electricity prices are linked to a grid, in development we are going to split this so that each grid can have a number of tariffs. We’ll also be introducing some functionality that enables a default grid to be selected at the project level to avoid the painful process of updating the grids after an operational energy template has been added.

New Water Grids

With the introduction of fresh water use as an indicator in eTool LCA, users now have the ability to calculate and compare the water footprints of their designs (embodied and operational). Further to this, the other impacts associated with water supply (take energy and CO2e to pump and treat water) are automatically calculated for users that add water use to the mix. The labelling of the “Demand” column in the operational energy section of eTool LCA is very clunky at the moment (the units state MJ or kL as we’ve got both energy use and water use in the same list) and we plan to separate this out into a new section on the design home page. In the meantime though, we’re excited about the ability to measure impacts associated with water supply and treatment and as of July 1st 2013 these impacts will be included in the standard eTool LCA scope. We’ve run some testing and there are some significant changes to the life cycle impact assessments results (particularly residential).

New Materials

Our LCA of One Brighton for BioRegional in the UK prompted a bit of an overhaul of our materials database, we’ve added a number of new material categories and individual materials (about 100 in total so too many to list). These new updates were a mix of generic LCA data (for example, much more granularity in blast furnace slag and fly ash concrete mixes) and EPD data. We’re happy to say that adding the EPD data was pretty straightforward and we’re now well and truly open for business for materials manufacturers who want to add materials to the eTool LCA database. Our stance on data quality at the moment is that as long ast he EPD has been registered with a reputable EPD program operator we will likely enter it into eTool software.  Longer term, once Europe releases the product category rules for the EcoEPD project, this is likely the methodology we will adopt. At that point we’ll give materials suppliers a 12 month grace period to update their data sets to match this standard.

Upcoming Changes:

As of 1st July 2013 we’ll be changing the way we account for a few things in eTool LCA. These changes are to ensure the decisions being driven by eTool LCA are robust. After all, it’s always been our goal that eTool LCA is used as early in the design phase as possible to make positive changes to designs, we don’t want it to be post mortem that just highlights lost opportunities!

The most significant changes will be the forward counting of electricity grid intensity figures. At present eTool LCA assumes the grids will maintain their current mix of fuels for the life of the buildings which is a very pessimistic forecast for the planet. Potentially in an LCA on buildings drawing from fossil fuel dominated electricity grids, this puts perhaps too much emphasis on reducing the use of electricity at the expense of increased gas use or additional embodied impacts. For this reason we’re going to account for depreciating fossil fuel.

Want to give eTool LCA a go? Register for your free account today!

Commercial Building Inputs

Coming soon!  If you’re busting for information on any of the following topics, please let us know in the comments below so we can prioritise the next tutorial videos.

  • Heating, Cooling and Ventilation Systems: With the advanced templates and expressions functionality of  Version 2 eTool now gives uses much greater functionality for estimating operational energy loads.  Whilst eTool will never be a self contained thermal performances modelling tool, the output of such tools can now be used to estimate carbon emissions associated with different heating and cooling systems, on different grids and using different fuel sources.
  • Lighting: Use the eTool templates wizard to estimate the environmental burdens associated with different lighting systems.
  • Generic Tenancy Templates: Select from a number of pre-defined tenancy templates that estimate the energy loads of the space based on industry average figures.

Advanced Features

Coming soon! If you’re busting for information on any of the following topics, please let us know in the comments below so we can prioritise the next tutorial videos.

  • Nested Templates: Templates within templates, makes the building of templates even easier and reduces a lot of re-work. Great new feature we were able to implement under in V2
  • Expressions: Some fields in eTool allow you to write expressions (in a similar way cells in a spreadsheet accept formulas).
  • Variables: Add stored variables to your expressions. For example, if you’re building a template for the operational energy of lighting, it may depend partly on occupancy and the internal floor area. You can now pull these variables into your formula, and the result will update if you update the variables at the project, building or design level.

LCA Methodology

eTool LCA Methodology

What Functional Units does eTool LCA use?

In order to normalise assessments between building types the environmental and cost impacts are expressed in terms of an applicable functional unit.  Typically eTool uses the following functional units for different project types:

  • Commercial Office: Impacts are either measured:
      • Per Occupant Hour
      • Per m2 per year
  • Residential buildings: Impacts measured per occupant per year
  • Community, healthcare, retail: Impacts are either measured:
      • Per Occupant Hour
      • Per m2 per year
  • Industrial buildings: Impacts measured per m2 per year

All the functional units rely on a prediction of design life, which has a very large effect on their comparable sustainability. Although difficult to predict, eTool uses a methodology aimed at producing fair and repeatable comparisons between building designs. Individual building life spans will deviate significantly from the design lives calculated using this methodology, however the aim is to predict the mean expected life of all buildings with similar characteristics and circumstances.

Although studies that quantify the actual life span of buildings are lacking, the reasons for demolition of buildings are quite well documented. Studies conducted in Australia (Kapambwe, Ximenes, F, Vinden, & Keenan, 2009) and the US (Athena Institute, 2004) indicate that less than 10% of buildings are demolished due to reaching the end of their strutural service life. It is other factors that usually dictate service life, namely:

  • Redevelopment for economic reasons (surrounding land has increased in value to the extent that it is more profitable to increase the density or use of the buliding)
  • Redevelopment for aesthetic reasons (the building is no longer in fasion)
  • Fire or other disaster

For this reason the following characteristics are also considered when estimating design life:

  • Building density
  • Density of the surrounding suburb
  • Design quality

Best practice building design attempts to match the durability with the redevelopment potential of the building.

The eTool estimated design lives often differ compared to industry perceptions of building life span. Architects in Australia for example expect detached residential buildings to last over 60 years (Kapambwe, Ximenes, F, Vinden, & Keenan, 2009).

What are the System Boundaries of an eTool LCA?

The current eTool LCA scope is shown in the below diagram.  Although broad, the omission of demolition and recycling impacts must be noted as this has potential to be significant in an unbounded LCA.  eTool is working now to include demolition, disposal and recycling and as credible data becomes available this will be built into subsequent versions of eTool LCA..  The eTool database does however store an estimated percentage of recyclable materials used in the construction of the building which can be reported on separately. Please contact us for more information.

What data sources does eTool use?

Some detail regarding the data sources used by eTool LCA is provided below.  Please note the dates within and if significant time has lapsed it may be worth contacting us to ensure the below data sources are still relevant.  A goal of eTool LCA is to introduce greater transparency within the software itself, this will likely be tackled as a development priority during Version 3 or 4:

  • Building Materials LCI:  The default materials LCI database was provided by Life Cycle Strategies and is an Australasian specific dataset. Prior to the use of this data we used publicly available carbon and energy figures predominantly sourced from the Inventory of Carbon and Energy published by Batch University (http://www.bath.ac.uk/mech-eng/research/sert/). Whilst this is a brilliant source of information it only quantifies Energy and Carbon associated with materials manufacturing. It is also not regional specific as it aggregates the results of studies from all over the world. Hence our move to extend the selectable databases in eTool LCA. The Australian dataset has been introduced which has extended environmental indicators and includes recycling and disposal impacts (or credits). We are testing the ability to select from other databases in our test environment. Once this functionality has been released we will upload European and the US specific datasets. We are also in discussions with a third party to supply some hybrid data for Australia also. Eventually we hope to have a very comprehensive selection of datasets that would give eTool LCA some additional sensitivity functionality (sensitivity to data sets could be tested). In addition to the default data for each material, we have branded materials that draw on EPD information to further the accuracy of your LCAs. Materials manufacturers interested in uploading their own data should contact eTool (it’s a free service, we just need compliant data)
  • Stationary and Transport Energy Sources:  The current (August 2012) source for energy related carbon impacts is the Australian National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Technical Guidelines (2011-2012). This document only quantifies energy and carbon of fuel consumption, hence eTool will soon be implementing an Australian Dataset with a larger range of environmental indicators as part of the introduction of the previously explained Australian materials dataset. Further into the future we hope to introduce more regional databases.
  • Distribution grid energy consumption:  This data is sourced from a range of documents depending on the location of the grid. In Australia, the main sources of electricity and distributed gas data sets are the Australian Bureau of Agriculture and Resource Economics (State Electricity Fuel Consumption Tables for 2009-2010) and National Greenhouse and Energy Reporting Technical Guidelines. Astute users may notice that the carbon coefficients used in eTool LCA do not match the NGERs figures for electricity grids. This is due to NGERs not accounting for scope three emissions relating to fuel production (resource extraction, transport and refining of fossil fuels), nor losses associated with distribution and transmission of electricity.
  • Transport Energy Consumption: eTool LCA currently (Aug 2012) uses published transport coefficients from the Australian Department of Environment publication “Waste Tyres, a National Approach”. We are also reviewing other transport coefficients from around the world and will likely update these shortly.

A note on BPIC LCI data: eTool are eagerly awaiting the full release of well documented cradle to gate LCI data from the BPIC LCI database. Unfortunately at present the database is mainly only populated with gate-to-gate information which, without significant additional manipulation, cannot be used by eTool in LCAs of buildings. The BPIC LCI also has some quite stringent protocols dictating the use of the data, once a comprehensive and full dataset becomes available the protocols will have to be met within eTool LCA software, which will require some reprogramming. In other words, don’t hold your breath, BPIC LCI Data may take some time. This has prompted eTool to source an alternative Australian data set in the form of the Australasian Database currently available in SimaPro.

In relation to cost estimations, eTool has sought industry estimates for materials and energy consumption. This approach leads to significant under-estimation in the cost of highly processed goods (for example, the steel used for concrete reinforcing will cost a lot less than the steel used in a door handle, despite being of a very similar specification, the door handle has been value added significantly compared to the reinforcement. eTool LCA on the other hand will price these two uses of the same steel product equally).

Do we use the BP LCI database for materials?

Not at this stage. The BP LCI Data is unfortunately “Gate to Gate” data which does not account for the impact of the input of materials to the manufacturing process. The BP LCI team acknowledge this shortcoming and hope to expand their assessment boundary to include cradle to gate impacts.

In the meantime eTool LCA uses international LCI data. We hope to incorporate the BP LCI in one form or another as soon as the data provides cradle to gate, weighted and normalised LCA data.